Fix unnecessary full-table scans

While not all large-table full-table scans are problematic, a large-table full-table scan is a common symptom of a SQL execution  problem.  Large-table full-table scans in an explain plan (TABLE ACCESS FULL) should always be examined to verify that it is not due to a database problem, such as a missing index.

Unnecessary large-table full-table scans "full-table scans"  (FTS) are an important symptom of sub-optimal SQL and cause unnecessary I/O that can drag down an entire database.

The first step in validating a full-table scan is to evaluate the SQL based on the number of rows returned by the query and your own guess about the number of trips to the data blocks that would be needed to fetch the rows.
Oracle says that if the query returns less than 40 percent of the table rows in an ordered table or seven percent of the rows in an unordered table, the query can be tuned to use an index in lieu of the full-table scan, but in reality there is no fixed number because it depends on many factors like the db_block_size and db_file_multiblock_read_count.
This decision is partly based on the index key value described by clustering_factor  in the dba_indexes view. However, it is not a simple process.
The choice of a full table scan vs. index access as the "best" access plan for a SQL statement depends on many factors.  The most common cause of unnecessary full-table scans is a optimizer_mode that favors full-table scans (like all_rows) or a missing index, especially a function-based indexes.
Follow the link below for more on these factors and their importance: 

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