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Don Burleson Blog 







Oracle Hardware Performance Review

Oracle Tips by Burleson Consulting

Oracle does not run in a vacuum.  The performance of Oracle databases depends heavily on external considerations, namely the Oracle server, disk, and network.  The first tasks when tuning a database are to identify the external bottleneck conditions, which may include:

CPU Bottleneck: A shortage of CPU cycles can slow down SQL and whenever the run queue exceeds the number of CPUs on the Oracle server (in the absence of high idle times), the system is said to be CPU-boundCPU consumption can be reduced by a variety of methods (tuning SQL, reducing library cache contention), but a CPU shortage may indicate a need to add more, or faster, processors to the Oracle server.

RAM BottleneckThe amount of available RAM memory for Oracle can affect the performance of SQL, especially in the regions that control the data buffers and in-memory sorts and hash joins.

Network Bottleneck: Large amounts of Oracle*Net traffic contribute to slow SQL performance.

Disk BottleneckDisk bottlenecks can be identified by the fact that updates are slow due to channel contention, such as using RAID5 for high update systems.

There are several simple items that can be monitored when checking the external Oracle environment:

CPU Run Queue Waits: When the number of run queue waits exceeds the number of CPUs on the server, the server is experiencing a CPU shortage.  The remedy is the addition of CPUs on the server or the disabling of high CPU consumers such as Oracle Parallel Query.

RAM Page Ins: When RAM page-in operations are noted along with a prior increase in scan-rate, the non-virtual RAM memory has been exceeded and memory pages are moving into RAM from the swap disk.  The remedy for excessive wrapping is to add more RAM, reduce the size of the Oracle SGAs, or turn-on Oracle's multi-threaded server.

Disk Enqueues: Enqueues on a disk device may indicate that the channels are saturated or that the read-write heads cannot move fast enough to keep up with data access requirements.

Network Latency: Volume-related network latency may indicate either the need to tune the application so that it will make fewer requests.  High latency may also indicate a need for faster network hardware.


This is an excerpt from my latest book "Oracle Tuning: The Definitive Reference". 

You can buy it direct from the publisher for 30%-off and get instant access to the code depot of Oracle tuning scripts:




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Note: This Oracle documentation was created as a support and Oracle training reference for use by our DBA performance tuning consulting professionals.  Feel free to ask questions on our Oracle forum.

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